Amalgam Facts


c-Jun N-terminal Kinase is involved in mercuric ions-mediated Interleukin-4 secretion in mast cells.
Walczak-Drzewiecka A et al
Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2005 Feb; 136 (2):181-190.Epub 2005 Feb 8.

Mercuric chloride stimulates distinct signal transduction pathway for DNA synthesis in a T-cell line CTLL-2.
Du J, et al.
J Cell Biochem. 2000 Jun 6;78(3):500-8.

Carboxypeptidase-mediated metabolism of calcitonin gene-related peptide in human gingival crevicular fluid-a role in periodontal inflammation?
Lundy FT et al.
J Clin Periodontol. 2000 Jul; 27(7):499-505.

The gingival crevicular fluid interleukin-1 beta and tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels in patients with rapidly progressive periodontitis.
Yavuzyilmaz E et al.
Aust Dent J.1995 Feb;40(1):46-9.

Oral lesions and symptoms related to metals used in dental restorations: a clinical, allergological, and histologic study.
Koch P etal.
J Am Acad Dermatol.1999 Sep;41(3 Pt 1):422-30.

Oral metal contact allergy: a pilot study on the cause of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Hougeir FG et al.
Int J Dermatol.2006 Mar;45(3):265-71.

The effect of mercury vapour on cholinergic neurons in the fetal brain: studies on the expression of nerve growth factor and its low-and high-affinity receptors.
Soderstrom S et al.
Brain Res Dev Brain Res.1995 Mar 16;85(1):96-108.

The oral cavity as a reservoir of bacterial pathogens for focal infections.
Gendron R et al.
Microbes Infect.2000 Jul;2(8):897-906.

Systemic diseases caused by oral microorganisms.
Debelian GJ et al.
Endod Dent Traumatol.1994 Apr;10(2):57-65.

Anaerobes in infections of the head and neck and ear, nose, and throat.
Busch DF.
Rev Infect Dis.1984 Mar-Apr;6 Suppl 1:s115-22.

Stress and the periodontal diseases; growth responses of periodontal bacteria to Escherichia coli-stress-associated autoinducer and exogenous Fe.
Roberts A et al.
Oral Microbiol Immunol.2005 Jun; 20(3): 147-53.

Local and systemic total antioxidant capacity in periodontitis and health.
Brock GR et al.
J Clin Periodontal.2004 Jul 31(7):515-21.

Glutathione in gingival crevicular fluid and its relation to local antioxidant capacity  in periodontal health and disease.
Chapple IL et al.
Mol Pathol.2002 Dec;55(6):367-73.

Changes in vasoactive intestinal peptide in gingival crevicular fluid in response to periodontal treatment.
Linden GJ et al.
J Clin Periodontal.2002 Jun;29(6):484-9.

Changes in substance P and neurokinin A in gingival crevicular fluid in response to periodontal treatment.
Lundy FT et al.
J Clin Periodontol. 2000 Jul;27(7):526-30.

Quantitative analysis of MRP-8 in gingival crevicular fluid in periodontal health and disease using microbore HPLC.
J Clin Periodontol.2001 Dec;28(12):1172-7.

A structural role for metal ions in the “wild-type” conformation of the tumor suppressor protein p53.
Hainaut P et al.
Cancer Res.1993 Apr 15;53(8):1739-42.

Effect of transition metals on binding of p53 protein to super coiled DNA and to consensus sequence in DNA fragments.
Oncogene.1999 June 17;18(24):3617-25.

Regulation of p53 by metal ions and by antioxidants: dithiocarbamate down regulates p53 DNA-binding activity by increasing the intracellular level of copper.
Verhaegh GW et al.
Mol Cell Biol.1997 Oct;17(10):5699-706

Metalloregulation of the tumor suppressor protein53: zinc mediates the renaturation of p53 after exposure to metal chelators in vitro and intact cells.
Meplan C et al.
Oncogene.2000 Nov 2;19(46):5227-36.

Differential effects of mercury,lead, and cadmium on IL-2 production by Jurkat T cells.
Colombo M et al.
Clin Immunol.2004 Jun:111(3):311-22.

Th1/Th2 balance: the hypothesis, its limitations, and implications for health and disease.
Kidd P.
Altern Med Rev. 2003 Aug;8(3):223-46.

Sublethal, 2-week exposures of dental material components alter TNF-alpha secretion of THP-1 monocytes.
Noda M et al.
Dent Mater.2003 Mar;19(2):101-5.

Oral exposure to inorganic mercury alters T lymphocyte phenotypes and cytokine expression in BALB/c mice.
Kim SH et al.
Arch Toxicol.2003 Nov;77(11):613-20.Epub 2003 Aug 20.

Effects of heavy metal ions on resting and antigenactivated CD4(+) T cells.
Shen X et al.
Toxicology.2001 Dec 1;169(1):67-80.

Immunomodulation by metals.
Lawrence DA et al.
Int Immunopharmacol.2002 Feb;(2-3):293-302.

Induction of autoimmunity through bystander effects. Lessons from immunological disorders induced by heavy metals.
Fournie GJ et al.
J Autoimmun.2001 May;16(3):319-26.

Mercury induced autoimmunity in the absence of IL-4.
Bagenstose LM et al.
Clin Exp Immunol.1998 Oct;114(1):9-12.

Effects of deviating the Th2-response in murine mercury-induced autoimmunity towards a Th1-response.
Haggvist B et al.
Clin Exp Immunol.2003 Nov;134(2):202-9.

Effects of methl mercury on cytokines, inflammation and clearance in a common infection (coxsackie B3 myocarditis).
Ilback NG et al.
Toxicol Lett.1996 Dec;89(1):19-28.

New aspects of murine coxsackie B3 myocarditis-focas on heavy metals.
Ilback NG et al.
Eur Heart J.1995 Dec;16 Suppl 0:20-4.

Immunotoxic effects of mercuric compounds on human lymphocytes and moncytes. IV. Alterations in cellular glutathione content.
Shenker BJ et al.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol.1993 Mar-Jun;15(2-3):273-90.

Immunotoxic effects of mercuric compounds on human lymphocytes and monocytes.I. Suppression of T cell activation.
Shenker BJ et al.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol.1992;14(3):539-53.

Immunotoxic effects of mercuric compounds on human lymphocytes and monocytes.III. Alterations in B-cell function and vitality.
Shenker BJ.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol.1993 Jan;15(1):87-112.

Lymphokine activity in mercury stimulated leucocyte cultures.(author’s translation-article in German)
Lischka G.
Arch Dermatol Res.1976 Mar 10;255(1):57-62.

Immunologic effects of exposure to low levels of inorganic mercury.
Soleo L et al.
Med Lav.2002 May-Jun;93(3):225-32.

Cadmium-and mercury-induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in immortalized proximal tubule cells:evidence for a role of decreased transforming growth factor-beta1.
Jiang J et al.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol.2002 Feb 15;179(1):13-20.

Exposure to mercuric chloride during the induction phase and after the onset of collagen-induced arthritis enhances immune/autoimmune responses and exacerbates the disease in DBA/1 mice.
Immunology.2005 Mar;114(3):428-37.

Metals, toxicity and oxidative stress.
Valko M et al.
Curr Med Chem.2005;12(10):1161-208.

Levels of interleukin-1 beta, -8, and -10 and RANTES in gingival crevicular fluid and cell populations in adult periodontitis patients and the effect of periodontal treatment.
Gamonal J et al.
J Periodontal.2000 Oct;71(10):1535-45.

Double-stranded RNA-dependant protein kinase (PKR) is a stress-responsive kinase that induces NFKappaB-mediated resistance against mercury cytotoxicity.
Fremont M et al.
Life Sci.2006 Mar 13;78(16):1845-56.Epub 2005 Dec 1.

Levels of interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-8 in gingival crevicular fluids in adult periodontis.
Tsai CC et al.
J Periodontal.1995 Oct;66(10):852-9.

In vitro HgC12 exposure of immune cells at different stages of maturation:effects on phenotype and function.
Silva IA et al.
Environ Res.2005 Jul;98(3):341-8.

Interleukin-10 in murine metal-induced systemic autoimmunity.
Haggvist B et al.
Clin Exp Immunol.2005 Sep;141(3):422-31.

Sensitization to inorganic mercury could be a risk factor for infertility.
Podzimek S et al.
Neuro Endocrinol Lett.2005 Aug;26(4):277-82.

Induction of hepatic metallothioein by trivalent cerium:rol of interleukin 6.
Kobayashi K et al.
Biol Pharm Bull.2005 Oct;28(10):1859-63.

Mercury inhibits nitric oxide production but activates proinflammatory cytokine expression in murine macrophage: differential modulation of NF-KappaB and p38 MAPK signalling pathways.
Kim SH et al.
Nitric Oxide.2002 Aug; 7(1):67-74.

Mercury alters endotoxins-induced inflammatory cytokine expression in liver: differential roles of p38 and extacellular signal-regulated mitogen-activated protein kinases.
Kim SH et al.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol.2005;27(1):123-35.

Level of HgC12-mediated phosphorylation of intracellular proteins determines death of thymic T-lymphocytes with or without DNA fragmentation.
Akhand AA et al.
J Cell Biochem.1998 Nov 1;71(2):243-53.

Mercury induces polyclonal B cell activation, autoantibody production and renal immune complex deposits in young (NZB x NZW) F1 hybrids.
Al-Balaghi S et al.
Eur J Immunol. 1996 Jul;26(7):1519-26.

Mercuric ion attenuates nuclear factor-kappaB activation and DNA binding in normal rat kidney epithelial cells: Implications for mercury-induced nephrotoxicity.
Dieguez-Acuna FJ et al.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 2001 Jun 15;173(3):176-87.

Nuclear factor kappaB activity determines the sensitivity of kidney epithelial cells to apoptosis: implications for mercury-induced renal failure.
Dieguez-Acuna FJ et al.
Toxicol Sci. 2004 Dec;82(2):361-2.

The beneficial effect of amalgam replacement on health in patients with autoimmunity.
Jarmilla Prochazkova, Ivan Sterzl, Hana Kucerova, Jirina Bartova, Vera Syejskal.
Neuroendocrinology Letters 2004;25(3):211-218.

Validity of MELISA for metal sensitivity testing.
Elizabeth Valentine-Thorn & Hans-Walter Schiwara.
Neuroendocrinology Letters 2003; 24(1/2):57-64

The Role of metals in autoimmunity
Jenny Stejskal MD., Vera Stejskal PhD
Neuroendocrinology Letters 1999; 20:351-364

Metal-specific lymphocytes: biomarkers of sensitivity in man
Vera Stejskal, PhD et al
Neuroendocrinology Letters 1999; 20:289-298

Nickel Allergy is found in a majority of women with chronic fatigue syndrome and muscle pain- and may be triggered by cigarette smoke and dietary nickel intake.
Bjorn Regland, Olof Zachrisson, Vera Stejskal, Carl-gerhard Gottfries.
Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, vol 8(1) 2001.

Metal-specific lymphocytes: biomarkers of sensitivity in man.
Vera Stejskal et al.
1998.

Mercury-specific lymphocytes: An indication of Mercury allergy in man.
Vera Stejskal, Margit Forsbeck et al.
Journal of Clinical Immunology, vol 16, No 1, 1996.

Immunological and brain MRI changes with suspected metal intoxication.
Lita Tibbling, Karl-Aka Thoumas, Rodrica Lenkel, Vera Stejskal.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology. Vol 4, No 2, 1995.

Health observations before and after amalgam removal.
Dr.med.dent. Paul Engel, Lyss-Strasse 24, 2560 Nidau, Switzerland.

Mercury and nickel allergy: risk factors in fatigue and in autoimmunity.
Ivan Sterzl et al.
Neuroendocrinology Letters 1999; 20:221-228.

MELISA- an in vitro tool for the study of metal allergy.
V Stejskal, K Cedebrant, A Lindvall, M Forsbeck.
Toxicology in Vitro (an International Journal Published in association with BIBRA), 1994, vol 8, p.991-1000.

Human Hapten-Specific lymphocytes: Biomarkers of allergy in man
V Stejskal.
Drug information journal, vol 31. pp.1379-1382, 1997.

Lymphocyte transformation test for diagnosis of isothiazolinone allergy in man.
V Stejskal, M Forsbeck, R Nilsson, J Invest
Dermatol 94: 789-802, 1990.

Oral Health in America, A report of the Surgeon General.Executive Summary. Department of Health and Human Services 2000.

Loesche W. 1997. Associations of the oral flora with important medical diseases. Current opinion Periodontal 4:21-8.

Lamont R.J anf H F Jenkinson. 1998. Life below the gun line: pathogenic mechanism of porphyromonas gingivalis. Microbiol.Mo.I Biol.Rev 62(4):1244-63.

Haraszthy et al. 1999. Identification of periodontal pathogens in atheromatous plaques. J. Periodontal 2000 71 (10): 1554-60.

Wu T.2000. Periodontal disease and risk of cerebrovascular disease: the first national health and nutrition examination survey and its follow-up study. American Journal of Epidemiology 151: 273-282.

DeNardin et al.2000. Fibrinogen linked to gum disease. U. of Buffalo 31(27).

Genco R.J.1999. Risk factors for periodontal diseases. Periodontal Medicine. Ontario, Canada: BC Decker Publishing.

Loesch W.J. 1994. Periodontal disease as a risk factor for heart disease. Compendium 15(8): 976, 978-82, 985-6 passim; quiz 992.

Joshipura K.J. 1996. Poor oral health and coronary heart disease> J. Dent. Res 75(9): 1631-6.

Syrjanen et al. 1989. Dental infections in association with cerebral infarction in young and middle-age men. J. Intern. Med. 225(3): 179-84.

Beck et al. 1996. Periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. J. Periodontal. 67 (suppl.1):1123-37.

Arbes et al.1999. Association between extent of periodontal attachment loss and self-reported history of heart attack: an analysis of NHANES III date J.Dent.Res. 798(12):1777-82.

Wu et al.2000. Periodontal disease and risk of cerebrovascular disease the first national health and nutrition examination survey and its follow-up study. Archives of Internal Medicine 18: 2749-2755.

Grau et al. 1997. Association between acute cerebrovascular ischemia and chronic and recurrent infection. Journal Stroke (9) 1724-9.

Grossi et al 1997. Treatment of periodontal disease in diabetics reduces glycated haemoglobin. J. Periodontal 68 (8): 713-719.

Grossi et al. 1998. Periodontal disease and diabetes Mellitus: A two-way relationship. Annais Periodontal 3(1): 51-61.

Thorstensson et al.1996. Medical status and complications in relation to periodontal disease experience in insulin-dependant diabetics.J. Clin. Periodontal 23 (3 pt 1): 194-202.

Shoissman et al. 1990. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease. J. Am. Dent Assoc. 121: 532-536.

Murayama et al. 2001. The effect of antimicrobial periodontal treatment on circulating tumor necrosis factor-alpha and glycated haemoglobin level in patients with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Periodontal 72(6): 774-778.

Katz.J.2001. Elevated blood glucose levels in patients with severe periodontal disease. J.Clin. Periodontal 28: 710-12.

Heller et al. The carbohydrate addict’s healthy heart programme. New York: Ballantine Books.

Grossi et al. 2000. Obesity-gum disease link found. U of Buffalo reporter 31 (25).

Dahlen et al. 1995. Occurrence of enteric rods, staphylococci and candida in subgingival samples. Oral Microbio. Immunol. 10:42-46.

Scannapieco F.A & J.M.Mylotte.1996. Relationships between periodontal disease and bacterial pneumonia.J.Periodontal 67(10 Suppl):114-22.

Dasanyake A.P.1998.Poor periodontal health of the pregnant woman as arisk factor for low birth weight. Ann. Periodontal 3 (1): 206-12.

Loesche W.J.1997. Association of the oral flora with important medical diseases. Curr. Opin. Periodontal 4:21-28.

Hill.G.B.1998. Preterm birth:association with genital and possibly oral microflora. Ann. Periodontal.3(1):222-32.

Tezak et al. 2000. The relationship between bone mineral density and periodontitis in postmenopausal women. J.Periodontal. 71(9): 1492-1498.

Wactawski-Wende et al. 1998. Osteoporosis, oral health linked; analysis of national database shows relationship. American Association for the advancement of Science.

Moore W.E.C, and L.V.H.Moore. 1994 The bacteria of the periodontal diseases. Periodontal 2000 5:66-77.

Page R.C 1991 The Role of inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.J. Peridont.Res.26:230-242.

Holt S.C, and T.E. Bramanti. 1991. Factors in virulence expression and their role in periodontal disease pathogenesis. Crit.Rev.Oral.Biol.Med. 2:177-281.